What if, instead of a guaranteed one-way road to ruin, hedonism is good for your health? If we think of hedonism as the intentional savouring of simple pleasures -- like playing in fallen leaves, moments of connection with friends, or cuddling the dog -- then it probably is. Seeking and maximising these kinds of pleasures can boost our health and well-being.
So where do our ideas of hedonism come from and how can we harness hedonism to improve our health and quality of life?
In broad terms, a hedonist is someone who tries to maximise pleasure and minimise pain. Jordan Belfort (played by Leonardo DiCaprio) in The Wolf of Wall Street
is probably the popular idea of the quintessential hedonist, where his extreme wealth allows him to indulge his insatiable hunger for all things pleasurable.
Hedonism Bot from Futurama
is another character exquisitely in touch with things that provide pleasure.
We find these characters so compelling because they seem to reject the sensible, responsible way to live. They indulge their carnal appetites in ways we daren't, with scant regard for consequences. We wait for their liver to rebel or their life to come crashing down around them, as of course it must.
But this kind of behaviour is better termed debauchery
-- extreme indulgence in bodily pleasures and especially sexual pleasures -- rather than hedonism.
Hedonism has its philosophical roots as far back as Plato and Socrates, but ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus
is often credited with articulating an early brand of hedonism based not on a life of untamed appetites, but on moderate pleasures and respect for others.
Today there are multiple views
on what hedonism is. This is largely due to some highly nuanced philosophical arguments about how we should conceptualise pleasure
What is pleasure?
It might help to think of pleasure
simply as a subjective state of enjoyment. This is a broad perspective, but one easily applied to our everyday lives. So, a lover's caress gives me pleasure, but so can a piece of music, laughing with friends, or simply sitting still in a comfy chair after a frantic day.
Just as different experiences can bring a similar shiver of pleasure, the same experience can conjure a range of responses -- from extreme pleasure to definite displeasure -- in different people.
There is no single stimulus
that elicits exactly the same response in everyone all the time: pleasure
is an interaction between the stimulus and the perceiver.
If you close your eyes and think about a time you experienced a tingle of pleasure, chances are you're remembering a sexual experience, or something delicious you've eaten. Perhaps the memory is of a very good glass of wine, or those last 50 metres of a long, satisfying run.
And these are good things, right? Sexual pleasure is linked with health and well-being. For example, women who say they are satisfied with their sex life
score higher on measures of psychological well-being and vitality. A regular glass of wine is said to have a protective effect against dementia
and heart disease
, perhaps due to its antioxidant flavonoids
. And everyone knows the advantages of physical fitness
Well, these activities are good ... until they're not. Many of the things that commonly give us pleasure can also be used in risky or harmful ways.
When pleasure becomes a problem
, bingeing and compulsive consumption can be thought of as risky or harmful uses of otherwise pleasurable experiences, like using alcohol
and other drugs
, doing exercise
and having sex
It can be difficult to pin down the point at which a previously pleasurable behaviour becomes problematic. But, somewhere between enjoying an occasional beer and needing a drink before getting out of bed each morning, we've passed the tipping point.
At this stage though, pleasure is no longer the motivation, nor the result, of the behaviour. The uncontrollable "hunger
" has wiped the pleasure away and the best we can hope for is relief. Without pleasure, the behaviour is no longer a hedonic one.
The single-minded pursuit of one intense pleasure at the expense of other aspects of life that bring meaning and pleasure is also counterproductive
to living a rich and enjoyable life. This puts it well outside Epicurus' idea of moderate pleasures and self-control
Let's be rational about hedonism
So, when we need to make the mortgage or rent and keep our complex lives on track, what might a modern hedonist's life look like?
A practical definition might be someone who tries to maximise the everyday pleasures while still balancing other concerns. I'll call this a kind of "rational hedonism". In fact, Epicurus emphasised a simple, harmonious life
without the pursuit of riches or glory.
Maximising pleasure, unlike with debauchery or addiction, need not take the form of more, bigger, better. Instead, we savour
everyday pleasures. We relish
them while they're happening, using all our senses and attention, actively anticipate them, and reflect on them in an immersive way.
So, if my morning coffee gives me pleasure, I might pause and relish it while I drink it: inhale the fragrance of it fully and focus on the nuanced warm, smoky, bitter deliciousness of it. I should fully attend to the warmth of it in my hands, to the feeling of it in my mouth, and to the cascade of sensations and flavours it delivers.
Not only that, in the morning, before my coffee, I can anticipate it. I can think how lovely it will be. And later, as I go about my day, I can pause and think about that coffee, about just how warm and good it was, how it smelled and tasted.
In other words, I can immerse myself in these moments, in the anticipation, in the drinking itself, and in the remembering, and bring all my attention to them. This kind of savouring results in a totally different, and richer, experience
than if I absent-mindedly gulp down the coffee while dodging traffic and talking on the phone.
The act of savouring intensifies the pleasure we extract from simple things and delivers greater satisfaction from them. One study found that spending a little time savouring the anticipation
before eating chocolate led participants to eat less chocolate overall.
seems to be key to the link between pleasurable feelings and well-being.
How do we benefit from hedonism?
A state of pleasure is linked with reducing stress
. So when we feel pleasure, our sympathetic nervous system -- that fight or flight response we experience when we feel threatened -- is calmed. First of all, the stimulus arouses us, then if we appraise the situation as safe, we have "stress-terminating responses
", which we experience as relaxation or stress relief.
Studies show pleasurable emotions are associated with broader and more creative thinking
, and a range of positive outcomes including better resilience
, social connectedness
, physical health
, and longevity
. So, pleasure might not only help us to live more enjoyably, but longer.
Hedonism for health and well-being
Maximising everyday pleasures
can be used in therapy
and shows promise
as an intervention for depression.
One study of school children
showed focusing on pleasurable daily events, in this case recording them in a diary, reduced depressive symptoms, and the effect was maintained three months later.
Focusing on the pleasurable aspects
of healthy foods can also be a more effective way to eat more of them than focusing on how "healthy" they are. Similar approaches are likely to be effective with exercise
and other behaviours associated with health benefits.
What we know about the benefits of this kind of rational hedonism is likely to grow from here. We have only just begun to explore the therapeutic value of shifting focus to fully attend to and maximise pleasure.
We do know that interventions encouraging individuals to focus on pleasurable experiences are associated with increased self-reported well-being
Promoting well-being in older adults is a particularly promising area. Savouring pleasure is linked to resilience
in older adults and positive emotions can help to offset the ill-effects of loneliness
. Plus, regardless of physical health status, the ability to savour is associated with higher levels of satisfaction with life
And savouring can be taught. One study
, looked at the effects of an eight week program promoting savouring for a group of community dwelling adults aged 60 and above. The program reduced depression scores, physical symptoms and sleep problems, and increased psychological well-being and satisfaction with life.
In the meantime, we should defiantly shake off the idea that pleasure is slightly shameful or frivolous and become early adopters of this rational kind of hedonism. We can think of Epicurus, and intentionally savour the simple pleasures we have learned to overlook.