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Hundreds of Thousands Protest in Support of Immigrant Rights; No DNA Matches in Duke Rape Scandal; 911 Call Ignored

Aired April 10, 2006 - 22:00   ET


ANDERSON COOPER, CNN ANCHOR: Coming up, the battle over the borders today got louder. Hundreds of thousands took to the streets, stepping out of the shadows, to make their voices heard.

ANNOUNCER: A sea of people saying: We're here and we are not going back -- that and the faces of illegal immigration you don't know about.

Absence of Evidence -- 46 DNA samples in the Duke rape scandal, zero matches. Now what?

ROBERT TURNER, 6 YEARS OLD: She wasn't breathing. And I had -- and I had called 911, told them to send an emergency truck right now.

ANNOUNCER: What happened next may break your heart. It sure broke his.


911 OPERATOR: I don't care. You shouldn't be playing on the phone.


ANNOUNCER: A little boy's 911 nightmare, and his family's shot at "Keeping Them Honest."


ANNOUNCER: Across the country and around the world, this is ANDERSON COOPER 360.

Live from the CNN Broadcast Center in New York, here's Anderson Cooper.

COOPER: And a good Monday evening to you.

With immigration reform stalled in the Senate, the battle moved back to the streets today, one of the biggest was in Washington, where organizers said as many as half-a-million people turned out. In Phoenix, an estimated 300,000 showed up. Police didn't provide official crowd estimates in either city. But this was much clearer.

For immigrants and their supporters, today was a major show of solidarity, a day to express anger and excitement and to flex political muscles.


COOPER (voice-over): From California to New York, and dozens of cities in between, immigrants and their supporters turned out by the tens of thousands. In Idaho:

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: It's beautiful. We have got everybody together, you know?

COOPER: In cities large and small, the message was the same.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: We're here. We work. We -- we go to school. And we like to -- to be all together, you know? We don't like to be divided.

COOPER: In Washington, D.C.

ELMER ARIAS, PROTESTER: We, as a immigrant, we come just -- we come to this country to work, to make a better living, to help our family. We're not a criminal. We're not here to live by the government. We pay a lot of taxes to the government.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: We are work-harders. And we don't come over here to stole nobody's jobs.


COOPER: Not everyone was united today. Some came out to protest the rallies, and their message was just as clear.

In Texas:

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: In my opinion, we need to round these people up.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I am tired of people coming across with impunity. We don't know who's here. We don't know what diseases they have. We don't know that they're coming here to work or coming here to kill.

COOPER: In size and scope, the counter-protests paled next to the pro-immigration rallies. And, for many immigrants, the fact that so many turned out to show their support seemed to be the point.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: I personally didn't even know how many Hispanics were in Idaho, and it's just wonderful how everybody just gets together.

ARIAS: I think today is going to be history.

COOPER: A day, some promised, that could change history.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: I have a message for all the politicians in Congress, and I have a message for our president. Today, we march. Tomorrow, we vote. (CHEERING AND APPLAUSE)


COOPER: Well, that message has certainly made its way to Washington, where the midterm elections are just seven months away. Immigration reform has never been a simple issue, but, in this election year, it has morphed into a political time bomb.

Here's CNN's Dana Bash.


DANA BASH, CNN WHITE HOUSE CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): In the shadow of the deadlocked Capitol, an unmistakable message delivered not just by the sea of protesters, but a Democratic champion for their cause.


BASH: That echoed in rallies across the country, with other high-profile Democrats adding their voices to the red-hot issue, from Hillary Clinton in New York...

SEN. HILLARY CLINTON (D), NEW YORK: I am convinced that we will have immigration reform.

BASH: ... to John Kerry at a quieter venue, speaking to undocumented hotel workers in Los Angeles.

SEN. JOHN KERRY (D), MASSACHUSETTS: We're not going to be a country that takes millions of families and splits them apart.

BASH (on camera): Last Friday, a broad, bipartisan agreement to put millions of illegal immigrants on a path to U.S. citizenship stalled in the U.S. Senate. Democrats pointed the finger at Republicans, who called that amnesty and wanted to kill the bill. Meanwhile, Republicans, who have been divided on this issue, united to blame the Democrats...

(voice-over): ... accusing them of punting on a solution to play election-year politics, especially in light of these long-planned rallies, where the focus was on slamming the GOP for passing a hard- line House bill last year, which would make illegal immigrants felons and impose new penalties on anyone who helps them. Anger over the House bill motivated Elmer Arias to round up 30 busloads of friends and come to the Washington Mall. He voted for George W. Bush, and regrets it.

ARIAS: I was believing on him. But, you know, what they're doing right now, I don't think any Hispanics is going to vote for a Republican anymore.

BASH: It's that kind of outrage at the GOP that has Bush allies so worried. GROVER NORQUIST, PRESIDENT, AMERICANS FOR TAX REFORM: If the Republican Party maintains its competitive position with the Hispanic vote, 40 percent and more, it will govern America for the next 50 years. If it falls to a low percentage of the Hispanic vote, then it won't.

BASH: At immigration rallies only weeks ago, many protesters waved Mexican flags, which infuriated even immigrant supporters, who thought it looked anti-American.

Senior Democrats worried there could be a backlash, but, this time, organizers got the message. They worked hard to hand out American flags and, at the D.C. rally, recited the words every American knows by heart.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: With liberty and justice for all.


BASH: Dana Bash, CNN, Capitol Hill.


COOPER: Well, to say that immigration reform is a polarizing issue in this country is putting it mildly. Outside of Washington, CNN's Lou Dobbs has been one of the strongest voices on the subject, of course. New Mexico's governor, Bill Richardson, has also been a major voice.

I spoke to both men earlier tonight.


COOPER: Why hasn't anything been done? I mean, we have two weeks of talk in Washington, and I think a lot of people are scratching their heads saying, wait a minute, they have all gone home and nothing's been accomplished?

LOU DOBBS, HOST, "LOU DOBBS TONIGHT": Look, I -- I think all of us are hopeful that something could be done intelligently, humanely, rationally, and effectively.

We are not going to see this done quickly, which is what this president tried to do. The economics say we don't need a guest-worker program. We do need to do something about our illegal immigration crisis. But, first and foremost, as I have said, Anderson, we have to secure these borders.

It is a national shame that we have something called a Homeland Security Department, and we have borders across which three million illegal aliens cross.

COOPER: But, Lou, you say, I mean, the economics, you don't need a guest-worker program.

DOBBS: Right. COOPER: Just based on -- on humane reasons, I mean, doesn't something, some decision need to be made about these whether it's 11 million illegal immigrants or 20 million, as you often say?


DOBBS: Right. And -- and that's an entirely different question. I don't know what the number is -- that there are a certain number of illegal aliens in this country who have been here for a considerable time, whether that is seven years, 10 years, 15 years, who have led decent, law-abiding, productive, positive lives in this country. We have to deal honestly and humanely with those people.

Whether that is blanket amnesty, whether that is earned legalization, whatever you want to call it, we need to deal humanely with those. But for a group of people that have been here less than that, we have to be honest about that as well. And none of our politicians have the guts to take that on yet, and nor should they, until they deal with border security, because, without border security, you can't control immigration.

If you can't control immigration, you sure cannot reform it.

COOPER: Governor Richardson, the politics of this, I mean, for the Democrats, where does this -- where this issue go? I mean, we have heard now, obviously, a lot from Senator Kennedy. We have heard from Senator Kerry. Senator Clinton has now spoken out on -- on this.

In this upcoming election year, I mean, for a while, it seemed they were kind of standing on the sidelines, watching the Republicans fight over this. Where -- where do they go from here?

GOV. BILL RICHARDSON (D), NEW MEXICO: Well, it's important that we treat this as a national issue. It shouldn't get so partisan, as it has, because you are talking about people. We're talking about securing our borders.

But, politically, if you look at most Democrats, there's strong support for border security, plus a legalization plan. It's the Republican side that I think is really in trouble, because you have got the president I believe, taking a correct position. I would like him to go further.

But you have got most of his party wanting to pass a House bill that I believe is unworkable, that creates a wall, that has felons out of the 11 million. I just think what you have to do is do is look at this realistically. You have to have border security and legalization. What are we going to do, deport these 11 million, find them and deport them? We don't have the resources. We don't have the time.


RICHARDSON: We don't have -- the cost is prohibitive.

I think what you have to do is be realistic. This is going to be a messy problem to resolve, but let's do it efficiently, and let's do it in a humane way, with a bunch of benchmarks. Let them learn English. Let them pay back taxes, background checks, making sure they pay fines. Let's set up some benchmarks that bring and earn legalization.

DOBBS: The fact is, if I may, Anderson, we don't have in place a government administrative apparatus that could do any of that. That's one of the reasons this -- the Senate legislation was such a sham.

We have 5,500 Immigration and Customs Enforcement officials. We are absolutely incapable right now, as a federal government, of administering this program. And what we're likely to see go forward, if the Senate should return to this, if they attempt this, I mean, it's just -- they haven't enforced laws in this country on immigration or border security now for basically two decades, despite 9/11.

RICHARDSON: My point is that we have to deal with this every day in the border, and what we need is, by all means, stronger border security for protection against terrorists, drugs, illegal workers.

DOBBS: Absolutely.

RICHARDSON: You have to have fines, also, on those that knowingly hire illegal workers, a legalization plan, and then another thing, Lou. I think we need to say to Mexico, you have to do more.

DOBBS: Oh, absolutely.

RICHARDSON: You have to do more in the area of joint smuggling operations, working with us, joint job creation, patrols at the border.

But you have to start somewhere. And I believe, if you just do border security, you're only curing half of the problem.


COOPER: Well, that was CNN's Lou Dobbs and Governor Bill Richardson of New Mexico on immigration reform.

You can watch Lou Dobbs, of course, Monday through Friday, 6:00 p.m., here on CNN.

On to a different form of politics now -- the politics of war -- a startling article by Seymour Hersh about President Bush and his plans for Iran.


SEYMOUR HERSH, INVESTIGATIVE REPORTER, "THE NEW YORKER": This is a president who believes that he -- only he can do what no Democrat in the future or Republican in the future will do, take on the Iranians.


COOPER: What Sy Hersh says the White House is planning, and what the president said today about Hersh.

Plus, the alleged rape case at Duke University, DNA test results are in. We will have the latest.

And Illegal entry into the U.S., we are hearing so much about it. But do you know what's involved for immigrants who want to legally enter this country? For one thing, there's a test. So, before we go to break, a little game.

Tonight, a sample test question from the citizenship test: Whose rights are guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights: A, everyone, citizens and noncitizens living in the U.S.; B, registered voters; C, natural-born citizens?

The answer when 360 continues.


COOPER: So, let's see how you did on a sample citizenship test question, the kind of question asked before legal immigrants can become citizens.

The first question tonight, whose rights are guaranteed by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights? The answer is A, everyone, citizens and noncitizens living in the U.S. -- more test questions coming up.

But, first, is the Bush administration setting the table for nuclear war with Iran, with America using its nuclear -- its nukes, tactical nukes, first, in hopes of stopping Iran from developing theirs? That's the headline from an article by Seymour Hersh in the -- in this week's "New Yorker" magazine.

Hersh, a Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist, also reports, that planning has been going on for months and is now moving into the operational phase -- strong stuff that needs some answers.

Earlier, I spoke with Sy Hersh.


COOPER: Mr. Hersh, there has been a lot of reaction, of course, to your article. The president had this to say about the article today. Let's listen.


GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: And, by the way, I read the articles in the newspapers this weekend. It was just wild speculation, by the way. What you're reading is wild speculation, which is -- that's kind of a -- you know, it happens quite frequently here in the nation's capital.


COOPER: There's been other criticism that you're relying on unverifiable, anonymous sources. No one, though seems to be attacking the essence of what you're saying.

HERSH: I have noticed that, too.

Nobody says, we're not planning, we're not doing anything. "Wild speculation," of course, is -- is generic.

Look, the reality is that we're doing -- the planning is actually much more than contingency planning. That's normal. We always have contingency planning for everything. What has happened, in the last four or five months or so, it has moved into operational planning, which is the next step. It's very serious planning for a potential military engagement. It doesn't mean it's going to happen, but the planning has intensified enormously.

COOPER: Also, part of the problem that I have read from your article, if your sources are correct, is that there's such a lack of intelligence about, really, the intentions and about the -- the capabilities of Iran right now. That makes planning all the more difficult.

One of the particular points that has gotten so much attention is the possibility of a tactical nuclear strike. A, why would that be on the table, and, B, why is it still on the table?

HERSH: Now, that's a great question, because the reality is, the military, when they do -- when they do planning, they give the president a plateful, a panoply.

They say, look, we -- here are the options. You can do nothing. You can use airplanes. If you really want to be sure that you're going to get -- there's a major underground facility at a place called Natanz, a couple of hundred miles away from Tehran. It's way deep, 75 feet underground, large. It's probably their main facility for the Iranians. If you want to derail their program, that's the place to bomb.

And, so, the Pentagon would say, if you want 100 percent assurance that you're going to knock this out, tac nuke is the only way to go. That was in the -- one of the papers. And then the Pentagon, at the highest level, wanted to walk back, you know, the cat, or whatever the cliche is about it. They went back into the White House and they said, let's get this off the table, because it's crazy.

This is about four, five, six weeks ago. At that point, the White House said, no, keep it up there. And now that has caused a lot of problems inside the military. They want the nuclear option off the table. And the White House wants it still on.

COOPER: You're saying there are even some people in the Joint Chiefs of Staff who may resign over that.

HERSH: Well, I don't think they will do it publicly, because that's just not the way the American military operates. They still believe very much in -- in the notion of presidential control. There will be resignations if the president doesn't take it off. And I'm -- I have written this, and I understand it to be true, that, at some point, senior offers will go to the president -- and I'm carefully not mentioning names -- will go to the president and say, Mr. President, we are formally asking you to take this off the table. At that point, he has to do so. He can't defy the generals.

COOPER: The word messianic was used by one of your sources. What was he talking about, and -- and how does that apply to this president?

HERSH: This is a president who seems to think it's his mission. I don't know whether he has been talking to God or he's trying to rectify what his father didn't do or because he really believes in spreading democracy.

This is a president who believes that he -- only he can do what no Democrat in the future or Republican in the future will do, take on the Iranians. I think he sees this -- the president of Iran, Ahmadinejad, is a very mouthy guy, who has threatened Israel.

And I think the president believes that he's -- this is Germany in 1935, and we have a Hitler there. I literally -- I quote somebody as saying that two people told me that who have been in high-level -- involved in close-to-high-level meetings. The president -- this -- this kind of talk is inside the White House.

This is, again, 1935 and Nazi Germany. The analogy really is pretty lame, but there are people in the White House who believe it.

COOPER: But what's interesting in your article, though, I mean, there is a -- seems to be some consensus, and, even among Europeans, even among, you know, people from the IAEA, that the Iran regime, I mean, there are a lot of -- there are some nuts in it, I mean, that -- that this is a regime which denies the Holocaust, which -- which, obviously, wants to wipe out Israel.

I mean, there's a lot of fear about what is happening in Iran.

HERSH: Right. And -- and that's absolutely true, and the point being there that the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, which has been monitoring Iran, has been very tough on Iran and is very skeptical of Iran. There's no question Iran has been cheating.

Iran would like to get a nuclear option. Now, you can -- you could say, if you're the Iranians, given what the Americans are saying about them, it's not such a bad idea to do whatever they can to protect themselves, because Bush is basically going on, as I have said, going around, saying, all options are -- no option is being taken off the table.

On the other hand, they are -- there's also a tradition. This is Persia.. This is the -- the land of Cyrus the Great. This is not Saddam Hussein running the country. The Ayatollah Khomeini, who is the spiritual leader, is pragmatic. I have read -- I have talked to people and read papers that indicate they -- that most people who know a great deal about Iran, not America, or some of our allies, who have had embassies there, etcetera, there, who believe that the ayatollah probably has more powerful than the kid running the country.

Look, it's dicey. It's scary. And this kind of language by us doesn't help.

COOPER: It -- it's a fascinating article. It's in "The New Yorker" this week.

Seymour Hersh, appreciate you joining us. Thanks.

HERSH: Thank you.


COOPER: Coming up, the sex scandal that has rocked Duke University and the lacrosse team. What's the truth behind the lurid headlines? The DNA tests are in.

But, first, Sophia Choi from Headline News joins us with some of the other stories we're following tonight -- Sophia.


Prosecutors in New Orleans have dropped charges against a retired teacher whose beating by cops was actually caught on video; 64-year- old Robert Davis had been charged with public intoxication, resisting arrest, and battering a police officer.

Canadian police have arrested five people on murder charges, following a gruesome discovery over the weekend, eight bodies inside vehicles on a farm in Ontario. Police said the dead men were part of the Bandidos motorcycle gang, and the killings were part of an internal gang dispute.

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger has declared a state of emergency in Northern and Central California, after the region's wettest March on record. Many reservoirs are at capacity, and 10 more days of rain are in the forecast. There are fears that some levees might not hold.

And Gwyneth Paltrow is a mom again. The movie star and her husband, the British musician Chris Martin welcomed baby Moses over the weekend. The couple have another child.

Anderson, Apple turns 2 next month.

COOPER: Sophia, thanks very much.

CHOI: Sure.

COOPER: Coming up, the rape allegations against Duke University's lacrosse team -- coming up, the DNA test reveals a new twist to the story.

And the child who called 911 and received a surprising response from the operator. Did this child's mother die because of what the operator didn't do? -- when 360 continues. (COMMERCIAL BREAK)

COOPER: Tonight, the sex scandal that has rocked Duke University has taken a major turn. An exotic dancer says she was gang-raped by members of the university's lacrosse team. Forty-six of the team members gave DNA samples.

And, today, defense attorneys say, tests on the DNA samples came back negative, proving, they claim, the players are innocent.

CNN's Jason Carroll has the latest.


JASON CARROLL, CNN CORRESPONDENT (voice-over): The defense attorneys representing 46 members of Duke University's lacrosse team were very definitive.

WADE SMITH, DEFENSE ATTORNEY: No DNA material from any young man tested was present on the body of this complaining woman, not present within her body, not present on the surface of her body, and not present on any of her belongings.

JOSEPH CHESHIRE, DEFENSE ATTORNEY: There is no evidence, other than the word of this one complaining person, that any rape or sexual assault took place in that house on that evening. It wasn't here two weeks ago. It's not here today. It won't be here tomorrow.

CARROLL: Durham's district attorney handed over the results after receiving them late today. But he wouldn't comment on them.

MICHAEL NIFONG, DURHAM, NORTH CAROLINA, DISTRICT ATTORNEY: It would be inappropriate for me to comment on any of the evidence at this point. And it would be inappropriate for me to comment on any of the things that have been said by the defense counsel. I'm trying to prepare a case, so that we can be in a position to do what we need to do, under my statutory authority.

CARROLL: An exotic dancer who attends a nearby university by day has told police she was raped by three lacrosse team members after she performed at a party at this off-campus house rented by the players. The players have maintained, nothing happened.

In addition to the DNA results, Bill Thomas, an attorney for one of the players, says he has time-stamped pictures that he says discount some of the young woman's allegations.

BILL THOMAS, DEFENSE ATTORNEY: These photographs corroborate the statement of all 46 of these young men. It's very clear that the victim in this case came to the house with injuries on her.

CARROLL: The father of one of the players expressed relief at the evidence, but concern about the impact on the team.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: But they all are, as they say, cautiously optimistic. They know that this is -- is not over. They know that there's a lot -- a lot of scrutiny on the program, on the school, and that probably lacrosse at Duke and life at Duke will never be the same. We hope it's better.

CARROLL: The case has already magnified racial tensions in the community. The young woman is black. She says the three white players who attacked her used racial slurs.

CHESHIRE: None of us standing up here are saying that there aren't proper social and moral issues that have come out of this discussion that aren't appropriate for discussion. There are. But, unfortunately, people have meshed those things with this sexual assault.

CARROLL: The defense attorneys say their clients are relieved, but not surprised by the DNA results. They also say it's time for the district attorney to drop the case, so Duke's players, the university, and the community can begin to heal.


COOPER: Jason, is there any indication of what the DA is going to do, or at least when we will know what the DA is going to do?

CARROLL: Well, Anderson, I remember last week, when I spoke to the district attorney, and we were talking about the DNA test results, he said that, even if the DNA test results came back without a match, that would not mean that a sexual assault did not take place. He also seemed to indicate today when we spoke to him that he would proceed with his case.

COOPER: Just for -- for clarity, and I haven't been following this, because I have been out of the country the last week, I mean, was a rape kit done? Do we -- is there evidence of a sexual assault?

CARROLL: The district attorney is not releasing or revealing what evidence he has in the case.

I can tell you that, the same evening that the alleged rape took place, the young woman in question did go to the hospital. The district attorney told us that a rape kit was, in fact, conducted that evening.

In terms of what exactly happened after that, what the results of that was, that is not the type of information he's releasing at this time.

COOPER: All right. Jason Carroll, well -- well covered. Thanks.

Seyward Darby is the editor of Duke University's school newspaper, "The Chronicle." She joins us now from Raleigh, North Carolina.

Seyward, thanks for being on -- on the program.

What has the reaction on campus? I know you have been out trying to cover the story the last couple hours.


Well, it's by far the biggest development in the story thus far. And it occurred right during our daily budget meeting at the newspaper. So, we kind of kicked into overdrive, and sent people in all different directions to talk to students, administrators, neighbors, even to try to find some lacrosse players on campus.

And there's conflicted opinion, just like there has been on this entire situation over the past couple of weeks. A lot of students are saying that they're not particularly surprised. They were expecting the results to come back negative. And they have -- they have said that to our reporters.

Others are saying they are surprised, based on how assertive the district attorney has been up until this point about the evidence he has and how sure he is that an assault took place.

And one lacrosse player did go on the record with us, Matt Danowski. And it will be in the paper tomorrow. But, essentially, he echoed what the lawyers were saying, that -- not surprised. This is what they expected, because they have been asserting all along that they're innocent.

COOPER: Has there been a presumption of innocence or presumption of guilt on the part of students who you've been talking to?

DARBY: Opinion's been really divided on that. There are a lot of students who truly believe that they're innocent, say there's just no way this happened. That there are a lot of holes in the story. Things that happened that night that seemed like discrepancies between people when you talk to them. There have been questions about the 911 calls placed that night and discrepancies on that.

And so there are a lot of people saying that these young men are innocent and that they've been taken through the mud in this. Other people are saying that they're guilty, that they don't put this past them at all. And other people are saying that they're not really going to make an assumption of guilt or innocence at this point, but they do have concerns about other issues involved related to race, class, and tensions between Duke and Durham.

COOPER: Yeah, I mean it has raised a lot of issues of race and class. Where did those go? I mean, whatever the resolution of this is, those issues don't go away.

DARBY: Right. And the university is definitely taken note of that. Last week, the president, Richard Brodhead, announced several committees he's forming to look into, not only the culture of lacrosse and the university's response to this situation, but also generally, you know, relations between Duke and Durham and the culture of personal responsibility of students.

Now there's some debate among students about how much a committee, an initiative can actually do and what sort of tangible results it will produce. But I think that everybody knows that this entire issue, you know, whether there's a quick resolution legally, that the broader issues related to it aren't going to go away tomorrow, aren't going to go away next week, and that this will be changing (INAUDIBLE) course for quite some time.

COOPER: Seyward Darby covering the story, thanks very much Seyward.

DARBY: Thank you.

COOPER: So whatever the outcome of this case may be, the fact remains that sexual assaults continue to occur across America and can happen to anyone any time. Let's look at the raw data. According to the Centers for Disease Control, over the last 12 months, an estimated 300,000 women were raped. In that same period, 90,000 men said they were the victims of sexual assault. In 8 out of every 10 rape cases, victims say they knew their attackers, and in 64 percent of the incidents, the rapes were committed by a current or former spouse, boyfriend or girlfriend.

Changing gears. It has to be one of the most disturbing and heartbreaking 911 calls you'll ever hear.

OPERATOR: I don't care. You shouldn't be playing on the phone. Now, put her on the phone before I send the police out there to knock on the door and you're going to be in trouble.

COOPER: Well, a mother is dead, the mother of this little boy, after his call for help is answered the way you just heard. Coming up, how the family is fighting back.

And how can immigrants enter the U.S. legally? Is the process too difficult? Could you pass the citizenship test? Well, here's a sample question. How many times may a senator be re-elected? "A," twice, "B," four times, or "C," there's no limit? The answer when 360 continues.


COOPER: So our second citizenship test question, how many times may a senator be re-elected? The answer "C," there is no limit. How'd you do? More tests coming up on that.

But first, where are the grown-ups? That's what a 911 operator asked a child caller, a 5-year-old boy who incredibly had the presence of mind to dial 911 to get help for his ailing mother. Now, that child should be a hero. He did the right thing. That's the story we'd like to be telling you. The horrific reality, however, is that a 911 operator ignored the child. And so there is no happy ending to tell. CNN's Jonathan Freed reports.


JONATHAN FREED, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Robert Turner is being told he's a hero. But he sure doesn't feel like one. Back in February, when he was 5 years old, Robert found his mother, 46-year-old Sheryl Turner, unconscious in their Detroit apartment.

ROBERT TURNER, TRIED TO SAVE MOTHER: Then I had felt her tummy, she wasn't breathing. Then I had called 911. Telling them to send an emergency truck right now.

FREED: You would think a child crying out for help would set things in motion at the 911 center. That didn't happen.

OPERATOR: Emergency, 911. What's the problem?

ROBERT: My mom has passed out.

OPERATOR: Where's the grown-ups at?

ROBERT: In her room.

OPERATOR: Let me speak to her. Let me speak to her before I send the police over there.

FREED: The police were not dispatched. Three hours later, Robert tried again.

OPERATOR: I don't care. You shouldn't be playing on the phone. Now, put her on the phone before I send the police out there to knock on the door and you're going to be in trouble.


FREED: Police arrived 20 minutes after the second call. They found Sheryl Turner dead. The family is now seeking $1 million in damages from the city of Detroit. The lawsuit says Turner died from heart arrhythmia.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: Every call has to be considered a life and death situation.

FREED: The union representing 911 dispatchers says about one in four calls are pranks. Detroit Police are handling the investigation. The chief issued a statement saying, "If disciplinary action is recommended following the completion of the investigation, then that is the course that will be taken." Robert's family is trying to convince him he shouldn't feel guilty about his mother's death.

DELANIA PATTERSON, ROBERT'S SISTER: He did everything right. And we believe he's a hero. And we want to make sure he knows that he did everything right.

ROBERT: Every time somebody talks about her, I just bust out and start crying.

FREED: The family says children must know they'll be taken seriously when they call 911. Jonathan Freed, CNN, Chicago.


COOPER: Well, coming up, two sides to the same story. The former illegal immigrant who achieved the American dream, and what he's doing to help others achieve it, too.

And if you want to become an American citizen the legal way, how do you do it? A look at the hoops you'll have to jump through.

On the list, a citizenship test, here's another question. Who becomes president if both the president and vice president die? "A," the president of the senate "B," the speaker of the house, "C," the secretary of state? The answer when "360" continues.


COOPER: Okay back to the citizenship test. Who becomes president if both the president and vice president die? The answer, "B," the speaker of the house. More test questions coming up.

But first, an immigration success story. We found one company owner who doesn't ask about the immigration status of the people he employs and makes no apologies for that because he once faced the same hardship he says. CNN's Rick Sanchez reports.


RICK SANCHEZ, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Amid the tens of thousands of immigrants here asking for a shot at the American dream, we find Elpidio Diaz. Who is Elpidio Diaz? He's the little boy on the left, pictured with his brother, growing up in Mexico. And later, all grown up, the same year the pair did what millions of others have done. They looked to the U.S. for a better life.

ELPIDIO DIAZ, FORMER ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT: We had to borrow money to get across the border and to get to California.

SANCHEZ: He arrived 35 years ago. Penniless, he found his first job. You were a dish washer?

DIAZ: Exactly.

SANCHEZ: A dishwasher at a restaurant?

DIAZ: Yes.

SANCHEZ: Where is Elpidio Diaz today? He lives in this six-acre estate thanks to a thriving construction business. You must feel pretty good about yourself, right?

DIAZ: Yes, sir.

SANCHEZ: You achieved the American dream.

DIAZ: I think so. To a certain point, yes.

SANCHEZ: Diaz is now trying to help others achieve their dream. He employs 80 to 90 masons and bricklayers. And no, he says he does not check on their immigration status.

DIAZ: We don't usually have the means to do that. SANCHEZ: To do a background check?

DIAZ: Exactly.


DIAZ: And we usually don't enforce it.

SANCHEZ: Diaz says the U.S. immigration policy needs to be fixed. But he says deporting undocumented workers is not the solution.

DIAZ: If they send all these people back, the consumer won't be able to build a house for $300,000.

SANCHEZ: What's it going to cost them?

DIAZ: Twice as much, at least.

SANCHEZ: But getting rid of all undocumented workers and increasing the pay of others, even if it means we all would pay more, sits just fine with William Fletcher Gray Jr. We found him as a lone protester protesting the protests where Diaz and tens of thousands of Hispanic immigrants were marching.

WILLIAM GRAY FLETCHER, JR., PROTESTER: This is foreigners invading our land illegally. And they're out here marching, and I don't know how they think they've got the right to march.

SANCHEZ: You don't think they have the right to march?

FLETCHER: No. They're foreigners.

SANCHEZ: Diaz is not a foreigner. He's been a U.S. citizen for 18 years now. He understands the frustration on both sides. And says he would like nothing more than to see his workers and other immigrants get a chance to become legal as well.

DIAZ: If this nation is giving you the opportunity of doing something, the least we can try to do is that.

SANCHEZ: Diaz says immigrants looking for that opportunity, legal status, have now instead been hearing talk of walls being erected and criminalization. And that, he says, is why he's here with tens of thousands of others. The sleeping giant, he says, has been awakened. Rick Sanchez, CNN, Atlanta.


COOPER: Of course, there's a national conversation going on about immigration right now. You can be part of it. Want to hear your thoughts on immigration issues. We'll be taking your calls later on on "360."

And how difficult is legal immigration? There's often years of waiting. We're going to talk about that ahead. There's also a test. We've been giving you some of the questions. Here's another one. Which countries were our enemies during World War II? "A", Italy, France and Japan? "B", Germany, Russia and Italy? Or "C", Germany, Italy and Japan? The answer when "360" continues.


COOPER: So the citizenship test, which countries were our enemies during World War II? The answer, "C," of course, Germany, Italy and Japan. We'll have more questions about the test coming up.

Despite all the conversation about immigration, it occurred to us that something is being overlooked. If you wanted to emigrate to the United States legally, how hard would it be? Well, in a word, it's complicated. Actually, it's complicated is two words, never mind. There are more rules, stipulations, special circumstances and catch- 22s than you can ever imagine. Of course, if you're rich, a lot of that doesn't apply. Here's CNN's Tom Foreman.


TOM FOREMAN, CNN CORRESPONDENT: Look at the pictures, hope and inspiration of legalized American citizens.

And justice for all.

FOREMAN: And the question about illegal immigrants seems obvious. Why don't people come here legally? And the answer is just as clear to Brent Wilkes, an activist for immigrant rights.

BRENT WILKES, LEAGUE OF UNITED LATIN AMERICAN CITIZENS: Well, they can't play by the rules when the rules are you can't play.

FOREMAN: Well, you can play but the rules are strict, according to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service. First, through family.

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: This is ridiculous.

UNIDENTIFIED MALE: No, no. For the green card, I'd do anything.

FOREMAN: As the movie "Green Card" portrays, immediate families of U.S. citizens can come in with relative ease, as long as they prove the relationship is not a fraud.



FOREMAN: But bringing in others is difficult and time consuming. If you were from the Philippines and want your grown, married son to join you this year, you should have applied for his legal entry in 1988. Because that weighting list is 18 years.


FOREMAN: Immigrant sports stars, celebrities, people with highly specialized skills or advanced educations can be brought in by employers, but the less special they are, the harder it gets. People seeking political asylum are legally admitted while their cases are evaluated. So are investors who commit $1 million to build a U.S. business. A half million if it helps a struggling industry.

And finally, there is the diversity lottery. Out of the millions of low-skilled and unskilled laborers who want to move to America every year, 55,000 essentially have their names pulled from a hat. But -- and this is important -- if you are from Mexico or a handful of other countries that already send a lot of immigrants, the State Department has said, your name cannot be in the hat.

Immigration was once much more open. When the nation needed many workers people hopped on a boat overseas hopped off here.

WILKES: That was it. It's nothing like that anymore. It's much more complicated, and it's much harder to come into the country legally. And for that reason, that's why we've got illegal workers.

FOREMAN: Taking the citizenship quiz, saying the oath, those are the easy parts. Getting legally in line for the test, that can be hard.


FOREMAN: So Anderson, complicated is a very generous word. If you are an unskilled or low-skilled laborer in Mexico, it is very close to impossible, certainly highly improbable that you could get in line and legally come into the United States ever.

COOPER: It is -- and the test, though I mean, we're looking at some of the questions. They seem pretty easy.

FOREMAN: Some of them are pretty easy, some of them are not so easy. Did you look at all of them?


FOREMAN: I hope not. These are some of the tests that you would have to take if you were a citizen or wanted to become a citizen in this country. Pretty simple thing to study for, but off the top of your head, a lot of those might not get it. Which of these is guaranteed by the first amendment is the first one? Freedom of the press? Right to bear arms? Or right to trial by jury in most cases? What do you think?

COOPER: Are you asking me?


COOPER: Freedom of the press.

FOREMAN: Freedom of the press, very good. That's a good one to get right in our profession.

COOPER: If I got that one wrong, I'd be in real trouble. FOREMAN: What about this one? This is a touchy one in this country right now. Who has the power to declare war? The president? The Congress? The secretary of defense?

COOPER: It's an easy one to get wrong but it's "B," the Congress.

FOREMAN: That's very good, the Congress. I think they gave you a primer on this.

COOPER: No, actually, but I am a "Jeopardy" champion, so.

FOREMAN: That's right. Weren't you like a "Jeopardy" runner-up or something?

COOPER: No, no, no, I was a "Jeopardy" champion. "Celebrity Jeopardy" albeit.

FOREMAN: Oh "Celebrity Jeopardy."

COOPER: Yes, the toned down version.

FOREMAN: That "Celebrity Jeopardy."

COOPER: Hey, I was against Kweisi Mfume and Maria Bartiromo and I crushed them both. But I don't like to brag.

FOREMAN: Exactly.

COOPER: Bring it on. Bring it on. What else do you got for me Foreman?

FOREMAN: Okay. What was the 49th state added to the United States? Hawaii? Alaska? Or Canada?

COOPER: Well, all right. I'm going to go for "B," Alaska.

FOREMAN: Are you sure?

COOPER: Yes. You better tell me I'm right.

FOREMAN: Do you know by how much?


FOREMAN: About six months.

COOPER: Really?

FOREMAN: Beat Hawaii by about six months.

COOPER: That I actually sort of guessed on.

FOREMAN: Canada, of course, will be the 51st state. A little touchy about that.

COOPER: I just heard a lot of TVs clicking off in Canada.

FOREMAN: They'll turn back in to see if we retract later.

COOPER: Tom, thanks, it was a fascinating story tonight, looking at the ways to legally emigrate to the United States.

Coming up, how the immigration debate will shape the politics and the future of this country. First, Sophia Choi from "Headline News" joins us with some of the business stories we're following tonight. Sophia?

SOPHIA CHOI, CNN ANCHOR: Hey, Anderson, nice job on that quiz. Former Enron chief executive Jeffrey Skilling testified in court today that he was innocent, and he said he would fight the criminal charges, quote, "Till the day I die." Skilling faces 28 counts of conspiracy, fraud and insider trading resulting from the collapse of Enron five years ago.

Well, the average price for a gallon of gas rose just over 9 cents a gallon last week. The Energy Information Administration says motorists paid an average of more than $2.68 for a gallon, that is 37 cents more than a year ago.

All right. So can't get enough of "Desperate Housewives," huh? Well, the Disney Company, owner of the ABC Network says it's going to start offering four hit shows online for free at the beginning of May. Other shows include "Lost," "Alias" and "Commander in Chief," and they're going to be available through June. But the hitch Anderson is that, you can't skip the commercials.

COOPER: There's always a catch, isn't there? Sophia, thanks very much.

Besides the immigration story that goes unseen, a picture of the risk that many from Mexico take long before they even get close to the American border. Come with us aboard what people call the train of death. We'll take you on it. That's coming up.

Also debating the issue with New Mexico's governor Bill Richardson and CNN's own Lou Dobbs. And we're taking your calls on the immigration battle. In a moment, we'll show you the number so you can get your questions ready. Stay with "360."


COOPER: Good evening again. Not since the Vietnam War or the Civil Rights Movement has the country seen a day quite like this. With senators unable to agree on a bill to secure the borders and somehow also deal with guest workers and millions of illegal immigrants, hundreds of thousands of people took to the streets. Many are in the country illegally, others are legal, and as they made it clear today, vote. So from Washington tonight, here's CNN's Dana Bash.

(BEGIN VIDEOTAPE) DANA BASH, CNN CORRESPONDENT: In the shadow of the deadlocked capitol, an unmistakable message delivered not just by the sea of protesters, but a democratic champion for their cause.

SEN. TED KENNEDY, (D) MASSACHUSETTS: We will never give in! [ speaking Spanish ]

BASH: That echoed in rallies across the country with other high- profile democrats adding their voices to the red-hot issue. From Hillary Clinton in New York --

SEN. HILLARY CLINTON, (D) NEW YORK: That we will have immigration reform.

BASH: To John Kerry at a quieter venue, speaking to undocumented hotel workers in Los Angeles.


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